describe various techniques and instruments used in microbiology

The most commonly used instrument in the microbiology laboratory for the sterilization of media and glassware is the autoclave (Figure 4.3). On the basis of type of heat used, heat methods are categorized into-(i) Wet Heat/Steam Sterilization- In most labs, this is a widely used … For balancing pH several combinations of chemicals can be utilized. The instruments used in the microbiology labs include a bunch of different kinds of instruments required for a lot of different processes conducted within those laboratories. Carbon is used for respiration and nitrogen compound is used for growth. These various types of light microscopes can be used to complement each other in diagnostics and research. Filtration method; Heat method of sterilization. This device consists of a rotating magnetic or an electromagnet creating a rotating magnetic field that allows the stir bar (a piece of heavy metal) to move around in the vessel. This will prevent any foreign contaminants from coming in contact with the customers and sample during testing. For this effective sterilization techniques are designed and studied in microbiology. An inoculating loop is used for transferring the microorganism. It is widely used in the microbiology … Homogenizer is a device used in laboratories for the mixing of various liquids and materials like tissue, plant, food, soil, and many others. These techniques mainly involve methods for culturing microbes. pH meter is a device used in laboratories that measure the H-ion concentration in water-based solutions to determine the acidity or alkalinity of the solution. The most common technique is by spreading on the surface of the agar or in the broth with the help of a heat sterilized loop. Tagging can be done in various ways, such as nick translation, or PCR using tagged nucleotides. A fundamental and important laboratory skill in the field of microbiology. This helps in killing every living organism, including spores. 2nd Year Microbiology (Biochem, Biotech) Syllabus, Principles of Diagnosis with Medical Microbiology, Darkfield Microscope- Definition, Principle and Uses, Sullivan and McCarthy’s Test- Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses, Immunoelectrophoresis- Principle, Procedure, Results and Applications, Advantages and Limitations, Acetate Utilization Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses, Acetamide Utilization Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses, Bacitracin Susceptibility Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses, Bile Solubility Test- Principle, Procedure, Types, Results, Uses, Butyrate Disk Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses, Limitations, CAMP Test- Principle, Procedure, Types, Results, Uses, Limitations, Catalase Test- Principle, Procedure, Types, Results, Uses, Cetrimide Agar Test- Principle, Procedures, Results, Uses, Citrate Utilization Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses, Coagulase Test- Principle, Procedure, Types, Result, Uses, Incubator- Definition, Parts, Working, Types, Uses, Precautions, Endocytosis and Exocytosis (Endocytosis vs Exocytosis), Cell Organelles- Structure and Functions with labeled diagram. Types of sterilization Although there are many techniques of sterilization available out there, heat and chemical method is widely employed to sterile metals and food substances. Motorized draft shafts present on the mixer oscillates and transfers the movement to the sample tubes causing the sample fluids to undergo turbulent flow. Hence in the identification of bacteria, we use microscopical, medical, biochemical, & serological methods. On the sides of the tube are openings which can be adjusted with a collar to control the amount of air that can enter. Thus, the denser particles settle at the bottom while the lighter particles are collected at the top. These techniques usually involve disinfecting working areas, decreasing the possible access by bacteria from outside air to the media and using of flames for killing bacteria that might enter the vessel when they are opened. Thank you very much. The transmission of infectious diseases via contaminated water continues to be a risk to public health in the United States and throughout the rest of the. Incubator provides an optimal temperature, pressure, moisture, among other things required for the growth of microorganisms. Laminar Hood is a closed device primarily for processes or instruments sensitive to microbial contamination. https://www.adamequipment.com/aeblog/what-are-analytical-balances, https://pharmawiki.in/autoclave-sterilization-principle-working-pdf-ppt-autoclave-validation-autoclave-diagram/, https://www.britannica.com/science/Bunsen-burner, https://www.biocompare.com/Lab-Automation-High-Throughput/11357-Colony-Counters/, https://www.prestogroup.com/articles/deep-freezers-for-medical-laboratories/, https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/magnetic-stirrer, https://www.britannica.com/technology/pH-meter, https://www.glascol.com/what-is-vortex-mixer, https://labrotovap.com/working-principle-of-water-bath/, http://www.microspectra.com/support/learn/what-is-a-spectrophotometer, https://pharmawiki.in/pdf-ppt-hot-air-oven-working-principle-sterilization-diagram-sop-uses-temperature/, https://www.labmanager.com/product-focus/incubators-20299, https://www.orchideenvermehrung.at/english/lfh/function.htm, 1% – https://www.aticomedical.com/laboratory-meters.html, 1% – https://pharmawiki.in/autoclave-sterilization-principle-working-pdf-ppt-autoclave-validation-autoclave-diagram/, <1% – https://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-is-gel-electrophoresis, <1% – https://www.ukessays.com/essays/business/primary-methods-of-maintaining-organizational-culture-business-essay.php, <1% – https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/technical-documents/articles/biofiles/centrifugation-separations.html, <1% – https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8640030_Karyotype_of_human_ES_cells_during_extended_culture, <1% – https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317560846_Resealed_Erythrocyte_Based_Drug_Delivery_System, <1% – https://www.quora.com/What-is-a-pH-meter, <1% – https://www.pharmout.net/basic-cleanroom-requirements/, <1% – https://www.news-medical.net/Life-Science-and-Laboratory/Laboratory-Water-Baths, <1% – https://www.microscopyu.com/techniques/confocal/introductory-confocal-concepts, <1% – https://www.fda.gov/inspections-compliance-enforcement-and-criminal-investigations/inspection-technical-guides/water-pharmacuetical-use, <1% – https://www.chemguide.co.uk/analysis/uvvisible/beerlambert.html, <1% – https://www.chegg.com/homework-help/definitions/electric-resistance-heating-4, <1% – https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/disinfection/sterilization/steam.html, <1% – https://www.britannica.com/technology/microscope, <1% – https://www.britannica.com/science/Bunsen-burner, <1% – https://www.biocompare.com/Lab-Equipment/6531-Spectrophotometry/, <1% – https://www.answers.com/Q/When_heating_water_in_a_beaker_with_a_Bunsen_burner_what_flame_is_required, <1% – https://study.com/academy/lesson/autoclave-sterilization-process-guidelines.html, <1% – https://quizlet.com/88317160/extraction-and-purification-of-nucleic-acids1-rna2-chromosomal-genomic-dna-flash-cards/, <1% – https://paramedicsworld.com/biochemistry-practicals/demonstration-of-spectrophotometer-principle-components-working-applications/medical-paramedical-studynotes, <1% – https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/elsc.201700056, <1% – https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Distillation+Processes, <1% – https://courses.lumenlearning.com/microbiology/chapter/the-effects-of-ph-on-microbial-growth/, <1% – https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-microbiology/chapter/counting-bacteria/, <1% – https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/Physical_Properties_of_Matter/Solutions_and_Mixtures/Case_Studies/RECRYSTALLIZATION, <1% – https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100616193724AASSn2D, <1% – http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/methods/protein/spectrophotometer.html, <1% – http://www.bionicsscientific.com/water-distiller/, <1% – http://www.biologydiscussion.com/microorganisms/culture-of-microorganisms-6-laboratory-instruments/55025. In a laboratory tabletop centrifuge, the sample tubes are aligned at an angle so that the particles have to travel a shorter distance before they hit the bottom. The instruments used in the microbiology labs include a bunch of different kinds of instruments required for a lot of different processes conducted within those laboratories. It can be used for the separation of cell organelles, nucleic acid, blood components, and separation of isotopes. Metric system: •Basic unit of length: Meter. Static air hot air oven: In this type of oven, the heat is produced by coils present at the bottom of the oven with no fan. Bacterial Identification methods Bacteria as mentioned before or so tiny that one cannot watch without a microscope. Heat methods. One can accomplish the counting either manually with the touch pressure or with a digital counter. Giemsa stain: Giemsa stain is a Romanowsky stain. Incubators have a heating system that allows for the temperature within the incubator to be adjusted according to the type of organism cultivated inside. Maintenance and Storage of Microbes Techniques, A totally doable detox with re energizing, radiance-boosting results. Similarly, they are provided with adjustments for maintaining the concentration of CO2 to balance the pH and humidity required for the growth of the organisms. This instrument can accommodate different sizes of plates which are scanned on top with UV, white light and/or fluorescent illumination. ______________________________________________________________________ 3. It is used for experiments related to plant tissue culture and for the experiments of genetic transformation. Water Bath is a conventional device that is used for chemical reactions that required a controlled environment at a constant temperature. This instrument is commonly used in medical laboratories, microbiology laboratories, organic chemistry laboratories and medical industries. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Usually bacteria grow on any source of organic food that offers carbon compounds and nitrogen compounds. pH meter is an electrical instrument used for measuring hydrogen ion concentration of solutions and mixtures (Fig. Deep freezers are used in laboratories to store and preserve medical equipment, food items, blood samples, medicines, and injections, etc. Acinetobacter baumannii- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention, E. coli- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, Staphylococcus aureus- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Klebsiella pneumoniae- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Microbiology of extreme environments (Types and Examples), General Aseptic Techniques in Microbiology Laboratory, Top 10 Microbiology Universities in Germany (Updated 2020), Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (updated 2019), T.U. These types of balances are made with a measuring pan enclosed in a transparent covering that prevents smalls particles or air currents from getting collected on the pan. CO1: Describe construction and Working of common instruments used in Microbiology laboratory CO2: Explain use of various glassware used in microbiology experiments CO3: Handle and use compound microscope to observe microorganisms CO4: Prepare and stain the smear and focus the slide to observe bacterial/ fungal specimens or Always wipe your hands and work area with 70% ethanol. This allows for the adequate heating of materials inside the oven. Instruments Techniques and principals in Microbiology 1. Types of sterilization techniques in microbiology. On a hot plate, electricity runs through the coils which have a high level of electrical resistance. Microbiological techniques ate the techniques that are used for studying about microbes also including bacteria, fungi and the protists. Spectrophotometry is based on the Beer-Lambert Law, which states the absorbance of light by a solution (of a particular wavelength) is directly proportional to the concentration of the substance. Sometime it is needed to suppress the growth of some particular bacteria, in that case some measured amount of concentrates are added to the water and they are called selective media. Sealing is done by using 2 strips of adhesive tapes starting from base to the lid. Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses, Read More: Incubator- Definition, Parts, Working, Types, Uses, Precautions, Culture media used in Microbiology with their uses. Bunsen burner is a standard tool used in laboratories, named after Robert Bunsen. This is the technique by which bacteria or microbes are introduced into media. The loop is a piece of wire that is looped at one end. Techniques used in studying about growth of bacteria. This instrument is based on the principle that when large globules in coarse emulsion are passed under high pressure through a narrow orifice, they break down into smaller particles giving a more uniform and stable mixture. A water distiller is a device that purifies water by the process of distillation. A centrifuge works on the principle of sedimentation, where the high speed of the rotation causes the denser particles to move away from the center while smaller, less dense particles are forced towards the center. Instrument Uses Test tube: Folin-Wu tube: Glass slide mycole and cover slips: in microscopy, serology, etc. classification of culture media used in microbiology laboratory on the basis of consistency Solid medium: – Solid medium contains agar at a concentration of 1.5-2.0% or some other, mostly inert solidifying agent. And it is also good to seal the petri plates for preventing any contamination. Soil science, biogeochemistry etc. Microbes who can tolerate the constituents of the selective media can only grow in that selective media. Since the instrument is very sensitive, it must not be used for Negative stains are used when a specimen or a part of it, such as the capsule resists taking up the stain. A new tool for systematic analysis of research labs. The amount of time and the temperature depends on the type of material being sterilized and the increase in temperature of the cycle allows for shorter periods. Diagnostic microbiology. The hot air rises and doesn’t allow the effective sterilization of the materials. In a potentiometric pH meter, single or multiple glass electrodes, connected to a bulb selective to hydrogen ions, are attached to a metal rod. Spectrophotometry 2.Autoradiography 3. A water distiller is based on the principle of distillation. Hot air oven is a type of dry heat sterilization which is performed on dry materials and on substances that do not melt or catch fire under high temperature. 1. Even though we will never know for certain the true phylogeny of any organism, phylogenetic analysis provides best assumptions, thereby providing a framework for various disciplines in microbiology. It can be used to measure the acidity level in wine and cheese during their production. The equipment inside the oven acquire heat and pass the heat towards the center, one layer at a time which allows for effective dry heat sterilization. Sterile Handling 1. It is recommended to wear gloves. Magnetic Stirrer is a device commonly used in microbiology laboratories for the purpose of mixing liquids. This multimedia textbook is composed of three parts sixteen chapters of contents which provide an overview of how to operate on microorganisms from culturing, enumerating, to identification. Let’s have a brief discussion on some of the common culture techniques. Figure: Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses. 2. The basic principle in a microscope is magnification. Figure: Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses. Many types of microscopes fall under the category of light microscopes, which use light to visualize images. The instruments are: 1. This is the most common method of sterilization. The extent of sterilization is affected by the temperature of the heat and duration of heating. A centrifuge is a device that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis, where an outward force is applied perpendicularly to the axis. © 2020 Microbe Notes. It involves use of enrichment media that will help in growth of particular bacteria against the other that are present in the given sample because of its specialized nutrient utilization capability and other such metabolic properties. Contextual animations in each section give users good illustrations of technique details and related theories. 3. Incubators can also be used in the steam cell research area. A pH meter is often termed as “potentiometric pH meter” as it measures the difference in electric potential between the reference and a pH electrode. In a microbiology laboratory, a spectrophotometer is applied for the measurement of substance concentration of protein, nucleic acids, bacterial growth, and enzymatic reactions. To Aid in … Laminar Hood is commonly used to conduct processes that are sensitive to contamination. Electron microscopy can be used to observe biofilms, but only after dehydrating the specimen, which produces undesirable artifacts and distorts the specimen. Different wavelengths of lights are passed through a solution as different substances have better absorbance at different wavelengths. Autoclaves are mostly used for the sterilization of medical or laboratory equipment with the capacity of sterilizing a large number of materials at once. This device is used in place of other stirrers as it is noise-free and because the size of the stir bar is so tiny, there is less chance of contamination. Spread plate method is used for culture of special clonal colonies and pour plate method is used for counting the specific number of colonies in a liquid medium. A sensor in the device transfers water temperature to a reference value which is then amplified and a control system generates a signal for the heating system which heats the water to the desired temperature. The heat is used to kill the microbes in the substance. An electric analytical balance uses the force necessary to counteract the mass rather than measuring the mass itself. Microbiological techniques ate the techniques that are used for studying about microbes also including bacteria, fungi and the protists. So, now let’s have a discussion on some of the basic techniques involved in microbiology. Throughout most of the modem history of drinking water supply, concerns about pathogenic microbes have focused on ente… Hot Air Oven for Sterilization: It is used for sterilization of glassware’s, such as test tubes, pipettes … This burner is made with a metal tube on a flat base with a gas inlet at the bottom of the tube, which may have an adjustable valve. 4. Analytical Balance India Ink preparation is recommended for use in the identification of Cryptococcus neoformans. The field is concerned with the structure, function, and classification of such organisms and with ways of … The resistance in the coils converts the electrical energy into heat energy which causes the coils to release heat. Using a microscope, email, and website in this browser for adequate... The study of microorganisms and cultures chemical reactions that required a controlled temperature transfers the movement to the needs! 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