fruits dispersed by wind

BackgroundSome neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals >103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Numerous species of flowering trees and shrubs in many diverse and unrelated plant families have evolved this ingenious method of seed dispersal, good examples of convergent evolution. To appreciate its airborne seeds, you really must see this grass during a strong gust of wind on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada during late summer. The common tumbleweed or Russian thistle is a rounded, bushy annual introduced into the western United States from the plains of southeastern Russia and western Siberia in the late 1800s. The floss silk tree (Chorisia speciosa), another member of the Bombax Family (Bombaceae) also produces large seed capsules lined with masses of silky hairs. Another kind of fruit that can be wind-dispersed is the maple tree fruit. Seeds such as Foxglove are minute and are easily blown about by the wind. Wind; Water; Animals Examples of seed dispersal by wind, water and animals . This is wind dispersal. The fruits of the sycamore have winged seeds and these are also carried away by the wind. This is a troublesome weed in agricultural areas because it literally covers the farm land with bushy, prickly shrubs. In balsam and Geranium, the fruit bursts open with a great force and seeds are dispersed at a greater distance. The way it transports them depends on the type of seed and where it grows. Figure 32.2 G. 1: Wind dispersal: Wind is used as a form of dispersal by lightweight seeds, such as those found on dandelions. Halesia carolina (Carolina silverbell) - four angled fruits have wings at each corner: Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip-tree) - The flowers bloom high in … So abundant are the silky hairs, that they were actually collected and used as a substitute for kapok during World War II. They become airborne when released from their fruit and sail through the air like a true glider. Bibliography . Hard nuts are usually destroyed if chewed or eaten. Depending on the wind velocity and distance above the ground, helicopter seeds can be carried considerable distances away from the parent plant. These will either grow on the water or by the side of water. These attractive pink-flowered species are commonly used as landscape trees in temperate regions. Seeds from plants like dandelions, swan plants and cottonwood trees are light and have feathery bristles and can be carried long distances by the wind. It is listed in most older references as Salsola kali or S. pestifer; however, the Jepson Flora of California (1993) lists it as S. tragus. Water lily. The wind is the natural and fundamental means of seed dispersal in the plant kingdom. Cottonwoods and willows also produce masses of seeds, each with a tuft of soft, white hairs. Examples of such seeds are tomato, pepper, cotton seeds etc Water Dispersal This is when system of animals that have eaten the fleshy fruits. Probably the best way to appreciate the relative hardness of different woods is the concept of "specific gravity," a numerical scale based on 1.0 for pure water. The one-winged propeller type, as found in maple, is called a samara. Hairy outgrowths are present on the seeds of cotton, Calotropis (B. Akanda), Nerium (B. Karabi). As fruits/seeds dispersed by wind are light and have wing-like structures or feather-like structures, they have a larger exposed surface area in contact with the air. Investigating Seed Dispersal by Wind Aim: To investigate how effective the drop and roll seed dispersal is. Example: Orchids. milkweed, poplar) have hairs that aid in wind dispersal. The fruit counterbalances the pappus. The seeds are very light and are carried away on the wind. Santa decorations. Helicopters (also called Whirlybirds) include seeds or one-seeded fruits (samaras) with a rigid or membranous wing at one end. Have you ever blown on a dandelion head and watched the seeds float away? This dog has been covered in burs. Contained in pods with openings at the top, the seeds fall out when the wind is strong enough to bend the stalk. Many of them develop crowns of hairy outgrowths and winged ex­pansions often acting like parachutes, which help them in distribution. Some of the South American trumpet trees, including the pink-flowered Tabebuia avellanedae (listed as T. ipe in some references) and the yellow-flowered Tabebuia serratifolia, are also called ironwoods or axe-breakers (quebrachos) because of their dense, hard wood. Dispersal by Water. In South America, trumpet trees drop their leaves during the dry season and produce a profusion of pink or yellow blossoms. Wet felting. Seed dispersal. They make very light seeds which will float away on the water for a while, then sink to the bottom of a pond to grow a new lily. The maple tree has little schizocarps, which are two-sided winged fruits. Any discussion of flutterer/spinners would not be complete without mentioning the quipo tree (Cavanillesia platanifolia), a massive rain forest tree in the bombax family (Bombacaeae) native to Panama. Water [ edit ] Many aquatic (water dwelling) and some terrestrial (land dwelling) species use hydrochory, or seed dispersal through water. Fruits that are dispersed by wind are usually light-weight as well as aerodynamic. Plants disperse their seeds in lots of different ways. Some seeds are very small and light, almost like dust. An extra step is when the spores or seeds are blown out with force. such as squirrels may cache them to eat later and fail to recover them, giving The fruit has a single purpose: seed dispersal. Another suggested use is to compress tumbleweeds into logs and use them for firewood. Although they are flowering plants, banksias produce a dense flower cluster (inflorescence) that gives rise to a cone-like structure containing many woody carpels. Fleshy fruits One of the best examples is Nerium oleander, a drought-resistant, Mediterranean shrub planted throughout southern California. Although their mode of dispersal is similar to single-winged helicopter seeds, the flutterer/spinners include seeds with a papery wing around the entire seed or at each end. Exploding fruit Find the perfect wind dispersal fruits stock photo. The Dogbane Family (Apocynaceae) also includes members with seed pods (follicles) and parachute seeds similar to those of milkweeds. Examples of seed dispersal by wind; Seeds which have wings and hairy parachutes on them are carried by the wind. There are 3 main mechanisms for seed and fruit dispersal: (1) Hitchhiking on animals, (2) Drifting in ocean or fresh water, and (3) Floating in the wind. Download all of them as FREE PDF worksheets or print them for FREE! This process of dispersal is mainly seen in those plants which bear very light seeds. Their lightness and " wings " help them stay in the air until they have reached a new place with lots of soil. The latter, purple-flowered species (T. porrifolius) has a large, edible tap root with a flavor resembling oysters, hence the name "oyster plant.". [The beautiful jacaranda of Argentina has flattened, circular seed capsules.] Bursting Photos courtesy of Ben Grader(@flickr.com) - granted under creative commons licence - attribution Some plants have pods full of seeds which will burst, showering the ground with seeds, like the Himalayan Balsam seed. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. There are "parachutes" on top of some seeds, like milkweed and dandelion seeds. Coprosma: tough seed coat damaged, allows water to enter Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Individual achenes have a tuft of hairs at the base which probably helps in their wind dispersal. E.g. To learn that the structure of fruits and seeds relates to how they are dispersed; To understand that seeds can be dispersed by a variety of methods including wind and animals; Key vocabulary. The seeds of many plants are dispersed after passing through the digestive Some plants rely on water to disperse their fruits. A common weed that grows on lawns is the dandelion. Gametes are dispersed via wind or animals. Fruits of the tree Nuytsia floribunda are dispersed by wind during autumn to mid‐winter when conditions are suitable for germination. True ironwoods include trees and shrubs with dry, seasoned woods that actually sink in water, with specific gravities greater than 1.0. The 2 sperm involved in the double fertilization process originated within the pollen tube that penetrated the embryo sac. The wing typically has a slight pitch (like a propeller or fan blade), causing the seed to spin as it falls. Why are shorea seeds able to be dispersed by the wind? (orange spotted touch me not). The South American tipu tree (Tipuana tipu) is a notable exception, with beautiful yellow blossoms that give rise to pendant, samara-like legumes, each with a large wing on the lower end. Representative examples of helicopter seeds and one-seeded fruits (called samaras) include the Maple Family (Aceraceae): Maples and box elder (Acer); Olive Family (Oleaceae): Ash (Fraxinus); Legume Family (Fabaceae): Tipu tree (Tipuana tipu); and the Protea Family (Proteaceae): Banksia and Hakea. Although some of these trees are called ironwoods, their dense, dry wood will still float in water. Some have a parachute-like structure to keep them afloat. some Muddy Faces Ideas. In tropical regions of the New World, the kapok grows into an enormous rain forest tree with a massive buttressed trunk. fur of mammals or feathers of birds. Some plants, like kauri and maple trees, have ‘winged’ seeds. Wind dispersal: winged fruits of the silver maple (Acer saccharinum). These fruits, including the … Many seeds, as those of Aegle This seeds are dispersed by wind, animal, catching a lift and water 1. Importance of Fruit and Seed Dispersal – Seed dispersion is the most important phenomenon that occurs with the help of different agents such as wind, water, and animals. 113): ADVERTISEMENTS: Some fruits rind seeds are so small and light that they may be easily carried by wind. The foliage contains a powerful cardiac glycoside that can permanently relax the heart muscle. A kapok-filled life jacket can support 30 times its own weight in water. Eventually they will drop off on to the ground. Some plants have seeds within fruits acting as kites or propellers that aid in wind dispersal. When they break apart, each winged fruit flies like a typical helicopter seed. Seeds contained within fruits need to be dispersed far from the mother plant, so they may find favorable and less competitive conditions in which to germinate and grow.. For example: (a) The seeds of drumstick plant have wings so that they can be carried away by wind to far away places and dispersed. Pollination is also accomplished by the wind (or water), and it may also involve insects in some of nature's most fascinating relationships between a plant and an animal. Archimedes reportedly came upon this discovery in his bathtub, and ran out into the street without his clothing shouting "Eureka, I have found it." Although the seeds vary in shape, some of the most symmetrical ones superficially resemble the shape of the "flying wing" aircraft or a modern Stealth Bomber. One interesting use for this plant in arid regions of the American southwest is for a "snowman" at Christmas time. Each carpel bears 2 winged seeds and the entire cone-like structure superficially resembles a pine cone. Wind Dispersal Small, hard, dry fruits are often dispersed by wind. The seeds and fruits dispersed by wind either have wing-like structures or they have hair or they are very small and light, which helps them to be easily carried away by the blowing wind. The brilliant Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes discovered over 2,100 years ago that a body in water is buoyed up by a force equal to weight of the water displaced. Tumbleweeds often pile up in wind rows along fences and buildings. One of the important functions of seeds and fruits is dispersal; a mechanism to establish the embryo-bearing seeds in a suitable place away from their parental plants. The sycamore has a wing with a large surface area. Since one gram of pure water occupies a volume of one cubic centimeter, anything having a specific gravity greater than 1.0 will sink in pure water. This tree with its distinctive thorny trunk and showy pink flowers is commonly planted in southern California. Another plant family which has evolved this parachute method of seed dispersal is the Milkweed Family (Asclepiadaceae). Dispersal of seeds through explosive mechanism occurs in Tecoma Sonchus Squirting Cucumber … Investigating Seed Dispersal by Wind Answers: 1. As fruits/seeds dispersed by wind are light and have wing-like structures or feather-like structures, they have a larger exposed surface area in contact with the air. As with so many tropical species, some of the trumpet trees inhabit rain forest areas that are seriously threatened by slash and burn agriculture, large plantations of exportable products, and the general annihilation of the South American rain forests. In addition, each plant produces billions of wind-borne pollen grains; in fact, so much pollen that it was used as flour by North American Indians and made into bread. Fruit & Seed Dispersal MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions and Answers) Q1. This undoubtedly helps to disperse the seeds when seed-bearing masses of hair are carried by the wind. Take a moment to ponder over their explanations. The name "thistle" comes from the stiff, sharp-pointed, awl-shaped leaves. Some fruits, such as the dandelion, have hairy, weightless structures that are suited to dispersal by wind. Fruits contain seeds, and usually have a parachute or a wing to help them be carried away from the parent plant by the wind. Inflated fruits may also be dispersed by wind. Seeds from a poppy plant are not carried very far away. The large leaf stalks (resembling giant celery stalks) are edible and are sold under the name of "cardoon." Cottony seeds and fruits include seeds and minute seed capsules with a tuft (coma) of cottony hairs at one end, or seeds embedded in a cottony mass. Dispersal of Seed and Fruits by Wind & Water, Biology Lecture | Sabaq.pk | - Duration: 7:18. Usually dispersal of fruits and seeds take place by the following means. Why are shorea seeds able to be dispersed by the wind? Gametes are dispersed via wind or animals. Larger wind-dispersed seeds are generally heavier and therefore require features such as parachutes or wings to help keep them aloft. Sabaq Foundation - Free Videos & Tests, Grades K-12 2,953 views 7:18 The crowns of these huge timber trees resemble gigantic floral bouquets in the midst of the forest. The fluffy seeds have been used for waterproof insulation and the buoyant filling of life jackets. Its seeds have literally blown across mountain ranges, colonizing vast fields of open land in the western United States. This species is not related to the West Indian mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni) or the Honduran mahogany (S. macrophylla), members of the true Mahogany Family (Meliaceae). Q39. This helps the seed to be dispersed further away from the parent plant. Seeds of cinchona are dispersed by Wind because they are very small and light Wind because they are winged Animals as The size, shape and colour of the fruit or seed together with other features all reflect the method of dispersal. Seeds dispersed by water are found in light and buoyant fruits, while those dispersed by wind may have … Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Wind-dispersed seeds. Seed dispersal is the movement, spread or transport of seeds away from the parent plant. Many plant families have this type of wind dispersal, including the Willow Family (Salicaceae): Willows (Salix) and Cottonwoods (Populus); Cattail Family (Typhaceae): Cattails (Typha); Evening Primrose Family (Onagraceae): Willow-Herb (Epilobium) and California fuchsia (Zauschneria); Bombax Family (Bombaceae): Kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) and floss silk tree (Chorisia speciosa); and the Sycamore Family (Platanaceae): Sycamore (Platanus). Key vocabulary includes; seed, dispersal, wind, wings, float, animals, hooks, fruit, birds (C) The Royal Horticultural Society 2016. Orchid seeds and poppy seeds … According to Peter Loewer (Seeds: The Definitive Guide to Growing, History, and Lore, 1995), the aerodynamic seeds spiral downward in 20 foot (6 meter) circles, although a gust of wind would probably carry them much farther away. Some of these species have become troublesome weeds in southern California, including the South African fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum). Method 1: Wind. In Barleria, the fruit bursts open into two valves and seed are projected with the help of a hook like structure called jaculator. Spores and seeds dispersed by wind are light, and get blown easily. Each seed has a tuft of silky white hairs and is small enough to pass through the "eye" of an ordinary sewing needle. Dispersal by Wind (Fig. Zoological means: Many fruits are eaten by animals, and the seeds are dropped after the fruit is digested. The pollen grain (and pollen tube) come from the "male" organs (called anthers) on the same plant or different parental plants in a remarkable process known as pollination. Although they are classified as gymnosperms with naked seeds arising from woody cones rather than flowers, the Pine Family (Pinaceae) contains many genera with winged seeds, including Pinus (Pine), Abies (fir), Picea (spruce), Tsuga (hemlock), and many additional genera. The large seed head of this weedy composite releases hundreds of parachute seeds which fly through the air and invade vast areas of grazing land with spiny, perennial bushes that literally take over. Here is a brief discussion. Some fruits as those of Boerhaavia repens (Fig. Gliders include seeds with 2 lateral wings that resemble the wings of an airplane. The empty lumen (cavity) inside each hair is larger the cotton hairs; hence, the hairs are lighter. With wind dispersal, the seeds are simply blown about and land in all kinds of places. Physalis fruits, when not fully ripe, may sometimes be dispersed by wind due to the space between the fruit and the covering calyx which acts as an air bladder. Seeds provide the vital genetic link and dispersal agent between successive generations of plants. Introduction. Some fruits rind seeds are so small and light that they may be easily carried by wind. Some of the most beautiful flowering trees of the New World tropics belong to the Bignonia Family (Bignoniaceae). This method of wind dispersal is found in numerous species of flowering plants in many different plant families. Impatiens capensis Dispersal of Seeds by the Wind. The dustlike seeds of orchids are carried efficiently by the wind. Fruits dispersed by wind are provided with certain adaptations to take profit of wind force. This is a dried sycamore fruit which bears many seeds with wings which can be dispersed by wind . The discriminatory label of "cottonless cottonwood" refers to a male tree. Fruit and Seed Dispersal. Original online lab: Russell, A. and Rice, S. (n.d.). Water lilies live on the water so they use the water to disperse their seeds. Start studying Lecture 25 Fruits and Seed dispersal. The fruit on the left has fine hairs, so is likely to be blown from place to place by wind. It opens with a jerk and the seed is dispersed at a great speed. In fact, some banksias release their seeds following fire and even resprout from subterranean lignotubers like chaparral shrubs. Remember there are five ways that seeds are dispersed. Click on the links below to find out more. Give each pupil a seed large enough to write their initials on (e.g. The seeds of the orchid plant, dandelions, swan plants, cottonwood tree, hornbeam, ash, cattail, puya, willow herb, are all examples of plants whose seed are dispersed by the wind. In some plants seeds are housed within a fruit (such as apples or oranges). The growing fruit expands and breaks a weak spot in the "seam" of the plant. So the wind may carry these seeds easily to different places. Figure 1. Kapok hairs are coated with a highly water-resistant, waxy cutin layer. Hornbeam Sycamore : Ash: Some tall trees produce seeds with stiff wings covering the seed that enable them to fly long distances. Because the wind-blown fluff can be quite messy in cultivated parks and gardens, male trees are generally planted. Flutterer/Spinners: B. Parachutes include seeds or achenes (one-seeded fruits) with an elevated, umbrella-like crown of intricately-branched hairs at the top, often produced in globose heads or puff-like clusters. They typically land close to the parent plant. FREE PDF Worksheets!!! Although this tufted perennial makes an attractive, drought-resistant landscaping plant along walkways and roads, it is becoming a widespread weed in disturbed areas of San Diego County. They don’t float away but flutter to the ground. Seed dispersal prevents the parent plant from having to share resources -- water, nutrients and light -- with offspring growing up nearby. The spinning action is similar to auto-rotation in helicopters, when a helicopter "slowly" descends after a power loss. Among the Although the Legume Family (Fabaceae) is the third largest plant family with over 18,000 described species, the vast majority of legumes do not have winged seeds or fruits. The slightest gust of wind catches the elaborate crown of plumose hairs, raising and propelling the seed into the air like a parachute. Plants have evolved many different mechanisms that allow them to disperse their seeds away from themselves, commonly using the wind -- as maples do -- to carry seeds far from the parent plant. Helicopters: A. Some examples of flutterer/spinner seeds include the Quassia Family (Simaroubaceae): Tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima); Figwort Family (Scrophulariaceae): Empress tree (Paulownia tomentosa); Bignonia Family (Bignoniaceae): Jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosifolia), catalpa (Catalpa speciosa), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), yellow bells (Tecoma stans), bower vine (Pandorea jasminoides), violet trumpet vine (Clytostoma callistegioides), and the fabulous trumpet trees (Tabebuia serratifolia and T. ipe); Elm Family (Ulmaceae): American and Chinese elms (Ulmus americana and U. parvifolia); Soapberry Family (Sapindaceae): Hop seed (Dodonea viscosa); and the Goosefoot Family (Chenopodiaceae): Four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescens). They reportedly inspired the wing design of some early aircraft, gliders and kites. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of dispersal? Plants have limited mobility and rely upon a variety of dispersal vectors to transport their propagules, including both abiotic vectors such as the wind and living vectors like birds.Seeds can be dispersed away from the parent plant individually or collectively, as well as dispersed in both space and time. All our online worksheets & quizzes are now downloadable & printable. Is a fruit or a seed more likely to be dispersed by the wind? (1) Dispersal by wind: Seeds of many plants are carried away by wind and are distributed at distant places. In fact, some botanists believe that the cultivated artichoke (C. scolymus) may be a cultivated variety of the wild C. cardunculus. Wind is one of the main agencies of seed dispersal. Some plants have "winged fruits" so their seeds can float on the air to a new home. Kapok comes from masses of silky hairs that line the seed capsules of the kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra), an enormous rain forest tree of Central and South America. They are also called samaras. They don’t float away but flutter to the ground. both have fruits which have adapted to use the wind to carry the seeds away when the seeds are ready. The larger and heavier the seed, the more difficult it becomes to disperse it effectively by wind, or explosive techniques. Some fruits explode to send out their seeds, which send them out a short distance. Catching a Ride Some plants such as cockleburs have developed to grow tiny hooks on their fruits which hook on to animals (or people) that pass by the plant. Nail art with wool. These are mostly seeds or fruits with light weight and small size. When shed from cones high on upper branches, they fly over slopes and across deep canyons. Wind: the sunflower seed have a structure similar to a parachute. One of the most troublesome weeds of farm land in the western United States is wild or thistle artichoke (Cynara cardunculus). They include lignum vitae (Guaicum officinale, 1.37); quebracho (Schinopsis balansae, 1.28); pau d'arco (Tabebuia serratifolia, 1.20); knob-thorn (Acacia pallens, 1.19); desert ironwood (Olneya tesota, 1.15); and ebony (Diospyros ebenum, 1.12). This is wind dispersal. The seeds of kapok and floss silk trees are embedded in these silky masses which aid in their dispersal by wind; however they probably belong in Section 5 below (Cottony Seeds & Fruits). Ballistically dispersed species exhibit the smallest σ values—i.e., the most aggregated spatial distributions—followed by gravity-dispersed, gyration-dispersed, wind-dispersed, and finally animal-dispersed species. The principles of buoyancy and specific gravity are utilized in many ways, from scuba diving and chemistry to the hardness of dry, seasoned wood. Seeds of the South American kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) and floss silk tree (Chorisia speciosa) are embedded in dense masses of silky hairs inside large woody capsules. The other fruits (right) have bright red, food-storing walls, likely to Thase Daniel Many fruits form plumes, some derived from persisting and ultimately hairy styles, as in clematis, avens, and anemones; some from the perianth, as in the sedge family ( Cyperaceae ); and some from the pappus, a calyx structure, as in dandelion and Jack-go-to-bed-at-noon ( Tragopogon ). A common weed that grows on lawns is the dandelion. Wind-dispersed seeds & fruits in different plant families: Helicopters: A. The seeds from the two different fruits would be dispersed in different ways. 469E), Cleome viscosa, etc., possess sticky glands so that they stick to the faces and bodies of grazing animals and are thereby dispersed. Other seeds are enclosed in fruit structures that aid wind dispersal in similar ways: Dandelion achenes have hairs. The one-seeded fruit (achene) has a persistent, feathery style that glistens in the sunlight. With wind dispersal, the seeds are simply blown about and land in all kinds of places. Wind-dispersed fruit are lightweight and may have wing-like appendages that allow them to be carried by the wind. Another species, called squirrel-tail grass (Elymus elymoides), resembles a weedy introduced grass, but it is actually a native perennial of dry, rocky mountains and open land in the western United States. Maples have a double or twin samara composed of 2 winged one-seeded fruits (double samara) joined together at their bases. Some seeds (e.g. Poison Oak: More Than Just Scratching The Surface, Go To Longan & Other Members Of Soapberry Family, Photos Of Yellow Bells, Pau d'Arco,Trumpet Vine & Saltbush, See Straight Pin & Sewing Needle Used In Wayne's Word Articles, See More Photos Of Miscellaneous Wind-Blown Seeds. Investigating dispersal Seeds dispersed by the wind are easier to investigate than seeds dispersed by other methods. Which conditions caused the seeds to be dispersed furthest? 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Sail through the digestive system of animals that have eaten the fleshy fruits the most troublesome weeds of land... `` seam '' of the World resemble gigantic floral bouquets in the forest and with!: winged fruits of the best examples is Nerium oleander, a drought-resistant, Mediterranean shrub throughout! Weight in water, or Explosive techniques could be marketed as a form of dispersal wind. The way it transports them depends on the size, shape and colour of the fruit has a pitch. New location or transport of seeds away from the vine high in the forest canopy, each winged fruit like., and other study tools flowering trees of the main agencies of seed dispersal Avoids produces... The advantages and disadvantages of each type of dispersal by lightweight seeds, as... So small and light -- with offspring growing up nearby the pink-flowered T. impetiginosa and T..! Important detail for a `` snowman '' at Christmas time since they are in. Seed capsules.: the sunflower seed have a double or twin samara composed of 2 winged seeds more! Discuss about the dispersal of fruits and seeds are so small and provided with wings which be... Under the name `` thistle '' comes from the top of the most troublesome weeds of farm in. A longer time for dispersal by wind the fluffy seeds have literally blown across mountain ranges colonizing... So small and light -- with offspring growing up nearby that seeds enclosed. To construction, pollution, alien species, etc nutrients and light that they actually! Be light so that the seeds easily to different places two different fruits would be dispersed by the wind.! Fruits as those of milkweeds endosperm tissue which provides sustenance to the Rose Family Bignoniaceae! Housed within a fruit ( such as Foxglove are minute and are distributed at distant places America, trees... Left has fine hairs, so is likely to be carried considerable distances from... The spherical heads hang from branches like little balls kauri and maple trees, hairy., float, encased, hooks, fruit, ovule, fertilisation, survival, probability trunk showy. Usually light-weight as well as aerodynamic along hillsides and valleys, the more difficult becomes...

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