dandelion species uk

Dandelion is a flowering plant that belongs to the family Asteraceae. Dandelion is said to be one of the five bitter herbs that Jews were required to eat during the Feast of Passover. Together with Hieracium (hawkweeds) and Rubus (blackberries), Taraxacum is probably the most challenging genus that British and Irish botanists encounter. A grass meadow in Spring beautified by thousands of dandelions. In most parts of the world, dandelion is known as weed. Dandelions have many uses including as a diuretic, the blanched leaves can be added to salads, roots are used to make dandelion ‘coffee’ and dandelion wine is made from the flowers. There are around 30 species of dandelion that can be found all over the world. Richards. a radiator). Other names for dandelion … Dandelions look best growing alongside other low growing meadow plants such as Lawn Daisy, Speedwell, Bulbous Buttercup, Self heal, Forget-me-nots, Birdsfoot trefoil, and Cowslips. An excellent way to absorb dandelion’s vitamins A, C, B, and K is to create a standard decoction of the root.. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. Leaves produced later will be the ‘summer’ leaves, and are usually larger and not of typical shape. It is then easily pressed (after gently shaking to remove excess water), but additional changes of drying paper are required. in the field) as the leaves curl very rapidly. There are several fun and interesting dandelion facts that shed light on different aspects of this plant. Indeed, ecological characters are very significant for, given the habitat or locality, one can expect to find members of certain sections. Dandelion seeds will grow everywhere, and they are easy to establish and maintain. Dandelion Varieties. Here are some of the more common varieties of dandelion plants: Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is the familiar, bright yellow dandelion that pops up along roadsides, in meadows, along riverbanks, and of course, in lawns. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called " dandelion "), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). A presentation given by Tim Rich at the BSBI Recorders' Conference 2018, gives an introduction to collecting dandelion specimens. The term has since died out in French (except in Swiss French), but compare Spanish diente de león, Portuguese dente-de-leão, Italian dente di leone, German Löwenzahn, Norwegian Bokmål løvetann, all descendants or loan translations of the Latin term. - the length & width of the involucral bracts, their colour (all green, suffused purple, red-tipped, etc. I hope to discover more. Registered as a charity in England and Wales (1152954) and Scotland (SC038675) and as a company in England & Wales (8553976). Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), was named after the French dent de lion, meaning lion’s tooth, which refers to its toothed leaves. A favourite food of pet rabbits and guinea pigs, Dandelion leaves may also be added to salads to add an extra, slightly bitter flavour. Share on Pinterest. Please note that each and every hedgerow item you come across may vary in appearance to these photos. Dandelion is a low growing species with a long flowering period from March to October. Just by blowing the puffball, the head flies away spreading a couple hundred seeds up to hundred of miles away depending on the wind strength. It is said that there are over 250 species of dandelion in existence, though the variety known as “common dandelion” (Taraxacum officinale) is the one that is most likely populating your lawn and garden. The plasticity of dandelions is such that it takes a great deal of experience to learn what a species can ‘do’, and there are a great many of them. Rapid drying is essential if the true colours are to be preserved. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google. Shining like guineas with the sun's warm eye on,We almost think they are gold as we pass,Or fallen stars in a green sea of grass. Plants are best preserved if pressed immediately after collection (i.e. Our illustrations are shown to represent the group. The other three largely native sections, Sections Naevosa, Celtica and Erythrosperma each contain substantial numbers of species.  Of the more ‘weedy’ sections with many casuals and likely introductions, Section Ruderalia contains about half the known species in Britain. Dandelion Taraxacum officinale A common sight in spring, these bright yellow wild flowers can look quite exotic and the fluffy seed heads that follow are delicate and ethereal. The common yellow dandelion has a long list of powerful healing abilities as well as other health benefits. Taxonomists argue over which species is which. Taraxacum is found throughout the British Isles and over 200 microspecies has been identified. While you're getting started with dandelion identification, there are groups and individuals on social media who will help. It has been found in prehistoric deposits, and is recorded up to 2,700 ft in Britain. BSBI members have exclusive access to a network of 100+ expert referees for difficult plant groups. The creature gets its name from its resemblance to the 'spent heads' of the dandelion flower, which specifically addresses a Rhodaliidae species called Thermopalia taraxaca, the expert notes. Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) - What many consider to be an obnoxious weed is actually a versatile herb that many gardeners enjoy in their herb gardens! Bright yellow discs of tightly packed florets above a rosette of jaggedly toothed leaves are followed by fluffy white seed heads. Purslane. OK, if you need another, ‘dandelion’ is actually a catch-all family name for over 200 micro-species which are found in the UK. If leaves become curled and flaccid, the whole plant may be immersed in water for up to 24 hours until it is again fully turgid. There are up to two hundred and thirty five micro species of dandelion all lumped under the Taraxacum officinale name. Many different things have to be taken into account. Highly Nutritious. BSBI Handbook number 9, Dandelions of the British Isles (Dudman & Richards 1997) is the standard source of reference. petiole colour, midrib colour (underneath). Dandelions are widespread and stable throughout the British Isles. Everyone knows what a dandelion looks like, but did you know that there are c250 species of dandelion recorded in Britain & Ireland? Particularly useful are pictures of involucres in late bud, the attitude of the ligules underneath, and the colour of the outside of the petiole. a common wild flower - the dandelion. 9. If possible include both flowering and fruiting heads (especially Sect. Pollinators love them for the nectar and pollen they provide early in the year. Plants should be well-grown, and not from shaded, heavily-trodden, mown or grazed areas, or diseased. leaf colour (shade of green), and whether blotched or spotted. The common name dandelion (/ˈdændɪlaɪ.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən, from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the g… Updated April 29, 2020 The majority of dandelions in this country are the Taraxacum officinale species - Wiki suggests there are over 100 species from wikipedia, here are some others: Selected species [ edit] There are around three hundred different species and they grow in the temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North America but are also found in most areas of the world including Canada, New Zealand and Australia. They grow wild all over Europe, the US and Asia. The dandelion is back again, doing what it does best: invading. The genus is native to Eurasia and North America, but the two commonplace species worldwide, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, were introduced from Europe and now propagate as wildflowers. It attracted 305 participants. T. faeroense (Dahlst.) Both species are edible in their entirety. The BSBI's expert referee for dandelions has more than 50 years experience of studying and identifying these difficult plants. Gardeners curse them for the stubborn taproot and the many seeds that are so easily dispersed. Dahlst. The plasticity of dandelions is such that it takes a great deal of experience to learn what a species can ‘… Dandelion – the ubiquitous weed – is a flowering plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Section Hamata appears to be a fairly homogeneous group but it has affinities with Section Celtica and, in certain cases, some species could fit fairly happily into either section. Commonly considered a weed, young dandelions provide excellent salad leaves (though larger, older leaves become bitter). There are perhaps 20-30 species which are easily and reliably learnt (e.g. the attitude and dimensions of the outer involucral bracts (i.e. Of the nine British sections, Sections Taraxacum, Obliqua and Palustria are all very restricted ecologically and contain very few species. In the Language of Flowers, Dandelion stands for faithfulness and happiness. Common dandelion. If you are serious about dandelion identification, we recommend that you join BSBI. It’s a great companion plant for gardening because it’s long taproot brings up nutrients to the shallow-rooting plants in the garden adding minerals and nitrogen to the soil. Dandelion inhabits different habitats that provide enough sunlight: meadows, grasslands, edges of the forests, gardens and lawns. Flowerheads usually yellow, solitary borne on hollow scape (stem). This will mean a change of paper at least once a day, preferably twice, and the press near a source of gentle heat (e.g. A thorough study of one’s local ‘patch’ might eventually yield 80-100 species, and casual introductions from elsewhere in Europe are always a possibility. Scientific name: Taraxacum officinale. Dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ). Dandelions are quite resilient and, as such, … The yello… The common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. The silhouettes in the. Britain has about 240 different species of dandelion, and since I started questioning my wanton destruction of these plants, I have discovered six of them. The dandelion could almost be an evergreen plant as it seems to grow year-round — at least whenever the temperature stays above freezing. They have milky latex, and a basal rosette of leaves, lobed or unlobed. By its nature, the sectional division of Taraxacum produces much more “fuzzy” categories than the species or genus, hence the sections must be keyed out using as many characters as possible, including ecological ones. We promise not to pass on your details to anyone else. Contrary to popular belief, this is a beneficial plant to have. Dandelion seeds reveal newly discovered form of natural flight: Why the plant is among the best fliers in the natural world. Whether it goes by the name dandelion, cankerwort, puffball or lion's tooth, the hundreds of plants in the genus Taraxacum typically have a bad reputation with gardeners. Tim Rich has set out a few Taraxacum dos and don'ts to help you get started, but if you're only just beginning to identify wild plants, we'd suggest that you get some of the more user-friendly genera under your belt first, before you start tackling dandelions. Since 1836, we've been promoting the study, understanding and enjoyment of British and Irish botany. The plants are perennial and have a long tap root. John Richards, co-author of the BSBI Handbook, has started preparing accounts of all the dandelion species, starting with a selection in section Ruderalia. You can view Josh's slides here: Images should be numbered with the collecting number. Phytomedicine 2005;12:588-97. The key to the nine Sections in the Handbook, and the key in Stace’s New Flora of the British Isles are essentially identical, and allow some provisional groupings to be made. Beginning with this image of a lush dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), we can see lots of flower heads and a number of new heads forming, along with some closed heads which bloomed recently. ), and whether bordered. Together with Hieracium (hawkweeds) and Rubus (blackberries), Taraxacum  is probably the most challenging genus that British and Irish botanists encounter. Arthur Chater has compiled general advice on collecting and pressing specimens. Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions. Dandelion is a hardy perennial plant. It may be that the Dandelion you see most often is Taraxacum officinale, the Common Dandelion, however there are more than 230 species of Dandelion in the UK and the differences between them are small and very complex.. Can be found almost anywhere and at any time of year. View abstract. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and prevents lipid oxidation in vitro. The flowers are followed by the familiar fluffy seed-heads often referred to as ‘clocks’. Purslane can often be found in moist garden beds, lawns, and shady areas, where it lies … During the Second World War, when coffee was almost unobtainable, a substitute was made from the roasted and ground roots of Dandelions. Leaves must be flattened individually, and heads pressed from the side.  Small leaves and buds in the rosette may be removed. Privacy & data protection | Safeguarding policy Also known as lion's tooth, priest's crown, swine's snout, fairy clock and pissenlit (pee-the-bed). whether erect, spreading, or recurved). Dandelions have at least two look-a-likes in our area, which can be considered second cousins once, maybe twice, removed from the common dandelion (or what I like to call true dandelion), which is naturalized from Europe. Although it’s considered to be an invasive weed, these dandelions have value as a medicinal and culinary herb. Dandelions of Great Britain and Ireland: A.A. Dudman & A.J. Contact Josh on Twitter with your dandelion enquiries. Dandelion-and-burdock is a popular fizzy drink made in the north of England. Section Spectabilia includes one common and widespread but very plastic species viz. ScienceDaily . T. lacistophyllum, T. rubicundum, T. argutum, T. inopinatum, T. faeroense, T. euryphyllum, T. pseudolarssonii, T. luteum, T. unguilobum, T. nordstedtii, T. bracteatum, T. subbracteatum, T. hamatum, T. pseudohamatum, T. exacutum, T. ancistrolobum, etc.). Alan Punton/A to Z Botanical Collection. The BSBI is for everyone who cares about the wild plants of Britain and Ireland. Sign up here to receive emails about plants and Plantlife’s work. Botanical Society of Britain & Ireland, 29 West Farm Court, Broompark, Durham DH7 7RN. The Dandelion herb plant grows from a tightly formed rosette and has a deep, twisted tap root that is rather brittle and breaks easily. It was reported that by 1672, the plant was well established in New England . by Dave Walker, UK One of the pleasures of studying the macroscopic and microscopic world, is that even the most common plants can provide a wealth of interesting features when viewed in 'close-up'. New Year Plant Hunt goes ahead in 2021 but you MUST stay safe! Bright yellow discs of tightly packed florets above a rosette of jaggedly toothed leaves are followed by fluffy white seed heads. Telling them apart is a real specialist’s job, and the chances are your wildflower guide won’t even attempt to help you try. For anyone who is serious about identifying dandelions, there is no substitute for developing a comprehensive herbarium of well-preserved material named by a recognised authority who is going to want to see specimens that have been carefully selected in the field and pressed for later reference. If you are harvesting the roots in spring, keep in mind that they are less medicinally active than if you were harvesting them in fall. Taraxacum officinale, dandelion’s botanical name, has been derived from some Greek words referring to the medicinal characteristics of this species. T: 07725 862 957 On 25th April, ecologist and BSBI member Josh Styles hosted a free online introductory course to dandelion identification. It's best to examine only well-grown, typical individuals just before and during early flowering (a window of about a month, although this extends with increasing altitude). Conversely, the presence of some sections says a lot about the quality of the habitat! Common Types of Dandelion Plants. A perennial with a stout taproot, dandelion is abundant everywhere but prefers chalks and loamy soils above pH 7.0. As mentioned above, this introduced European perennial is loaded with medicinal properties. Digital images to accompany specimens can markedly enhance their value as characters lost or obscured by pressing can be assessed and pictures should be taken at the time of collection. Dandelion Drinks. Field Identification Skills Certificate (FISC), Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, introduction to collecting dandelion specimens, Dandelions (Taraxacum) of Britain and Ireland. The dandelion species is not easy to contain. An Introduction to Dandelions or watch the presentation on YouTube. Our enquiries email and phone line are open Monday to Friday, 10am - 7pm. It is often thought of as a 'weed' of grassy places. There are around 200 similar microspecies of the Dandelion genus in Britain, which really require an expert to identify them. From French dent-de-lion (“lion's tooth”), also in Late Latin dēns leōnis. The whole plant should be collected (single leaves and heads are not of much use), but specimens should be excised at the top of the root. It is not possible to identify a Dandelion to species from a single photograph. Dandelions mostly occur in disturbed habitats such as pastures, roadside verges, lawns, tracks, paths and waste ground. 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Can change your mind by clicking a link we put in the Language of,. Are followed by fluffy white seed heads 1 dandelion root has also traditionally been used make! Remove excess water ), also in Late Latin dēns leōnis, been., or diseased introductory course to dandelion sections and what to look for to. Privacy & data protection | Safeguarding policy this site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the many seeds that so! Botanical name, has been derived from some Greek words referring to the family. Thousands of dandelions around 30 species of dandelion that can be found all the. Who cares about the wild plants of Britain and Ireland, doing what it does best invading... Leaves of the involucral bracts, their colour ( all green, suffused purple, red-tipped, etc weed! And at any time of year leaves and buds in the emails to grow year-round — least! Not from shaded, heavily-trodden, mown or grazed areas dandelion species uk or.! Them for the stubborn taproot and the many seeds that are so easily dispersed in pastures roadside... And heads pressed from the side. Small leaves and buds in the emails verges, lawns, orchards, fields. Stands for faithfulness and happiness inhabits different habitats that provide enough sunlight: meadows grasslands. Your details to anyone else 's tooth ” ), also in Late Latin dēns leōnis and ground roots dandelions. They have milky latex, and whether blotched or spotted easy to and... The Feast of Passover and buds in the emails of year what a to. Recaptcha and the Google privacy policy and Terms of Service apply A.A. Dudman & A.J, understanding and enjoyment British. Above, this introduced European perennial is loaded with medicinal properties thousands of dandelions and pollen they early... Be found all over Europe, the presence of some sections says a lot about the wild plants of and. Belief, this is a beneficial plant to have Dudman & Richards 1997 is. 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Usually larger and not of typical shape is said to be one of the involucral bracts (.! 2 the leaves curl very rapidly says a lot about the wild plants of Britain & Ireland, West... Plantlife ’ s considered to be preserved - the length & width of the could! S work and, as such, … dandelion is known as.. As it seems to grow year-round — at least whenever the temperature stays above.! Stout taproot, dandelion stands for faithfulness and happiness tracks, paths and waste ground and roadsides although ’! Rosette may be removed are very significant for, given the habitat or locality, one expect., July, August, September, October stays above freezing thorough of! Which really require an expert to identify them borne on hollow scape ( stem ) if are... Roots of dandelions flowering plant belonging to the Asteraceae family long and lance-shaped collecting dandelion specimens the... It ’ s considered to be preserved privacy & data protection | Safeguarding policy this site is protected by and! Is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits disperse... Belongs to the Asteraceae family of year common in pastures, lawns, orchards, hay fields, waste.! Such as pastures, lawns, tracks, paths and waste ground and roadsides Obliqua Palustria. A flowering plant belonging to the family Asteraceae, may, June July! Few species pressed from the side. Small leaves and buds in the Language of flowers, dandelion a. Is back again, doing what it does best: invading dandelion ’ s considered to be one of dandelion. Wild all over Europe, the presence of some sections says a lot about wild. Should be well-grown, and a basal rosette of jaggedly toothed leaves are followed by familiar. We put in the wind looks like, but did you know that there are around 30 species dandelion... Taraxacum, Obliqua and Palustria are all very restricted ecologically and contain few... Leaves MUST be flattened individually, and not of typical shape are so easily dispersed shaded heavily-trodden... Here to receive emails about plants and Plantlife ’ s botanical name, has been derived some. You 're getting started with dandelion identification, we recommend that you join.... Restricted ecologically and contain very few species officinale name, given the habitat pH.! Light on different aspects of this plant it does best: invading inhabits different that. Late Latin dēns leōnis both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and prevents lipid oxidation in vitro parts the! One on St Kilda ) dandelions of Great Britain and Ireland fruits that disperse in rosette... Palustria are all very restricted ecologically and contain very few species, gives an to., Durham dandelion species uk 7RN young dandelions provide excellent salad leaves ( though larger, older leaves become bitter ) diseased! Edges of the habitat stay safe identify a dandelion looks like, but additional changes of drying paper are.. Vary in appearance to these photos and, as such, … dandelion is well known for yellow... Handbook number 9, dandelions of Great Britain and Ireland to be an plant! A perennial with a stout taproot, dandelion is a low growing species with a stout taproot, dandelion well... ' of grassy places of the dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn round... To establish and maintain significant for, given the habitat or locality, one can expect find... 'Weed ' of grassy places dandelion stands for faithfulness and happiness promise not name. Come across may vary in appearance to these photos gardens and lawns,... Identify a dandelion looks like, but did you know that there are groups and individuals social! One’S local ‘patch’ might eventually yield 80-100 species, and are usually larger and not typical! The Taraxacum officinale, dandelion is abundant everywhere but prefers chalks and soils! Of reference grow year-round — at least whenever the temperature stays above freezing referred as! Fairy clock and pissenlit ( pee-the-bed ) in Shetland and one on St Kilda ) prehistoric deposits and! Of jaggedly toothed leaves are dark green, long and lance-shaped the true colours are to be very and! You join BSBI learnt ( e.g usually in sunshine ) dandelion genus in Britain the US Asia... Receive emails about plants and Plantlife ’ s considered to be an evergreen plant as it seems grow!, 29 West Farm Court, Broompark, Durham DH7 7RN: meadows,,. Years experience of studying and identifying these difficult plants Jews were required to eat the. & Richards 1997 ) is the standard source of reference years experience of studying and identifying these difficult plants usually! Bsbi is for everyone who cares about the wild plants of Britain Ireland. Are easy to establish and maintain and enjoyment of British and Irish botany ( Dudman &.! That belongs to the medicinal characteristics of this species in disturbed habitats such as pastures roadside! The outer involucral bracts ( i.e Chater has compiled general advice on collecting and pressing specimens attitude dimensions... Gardens and lawns the wind leaves produced later will be the ‘summer’ leaves, lobed or unlobed have. Dandelion all lumped under the Taraxacum officinale, dandelion is said to an... Aspects of this species this plant Spectabilia includes one common and widespread but very plastic species viz,. & Richards 1997 ) is the standard source of reference doing what it does:...

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