local risk factors for periodontal disease

Gingivitis 2. However, age is only one of the risk factors of periodontal disease. Investigation of the levels of different salivary stress markers in chronic periodontitis patients. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Furthermore, the position of the margin of restoration is also related to the gingival health. In the upcoming articles, we shall read in detail various risk factors and determinants associated with periodontal diseases and the mechanisms of their association. IL-6 and TNF-α are two main chemical mediators which relate periodontitis to diabetes. Smoking affects the subgingival microflora in periodontitis. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented … Bleeding on probing is one of the earliest indicators of gingival inflammation. Stress 5. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Microbial factors

  • Over 500 bacteria have
  • been identified
  • Authors categorized
  • bacterial species into
  • colour coded groups
  • based on … Other risk factors play important roles as well. Alcohol intake has been associated with an increased severity of clinical attachment loss in a dose-dependent manner. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans; Bacteroides forsythus; Fusobacterium nucleatum; Periodontal diseases/microbiology; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Prevotella intermedia; Wolinella recta; osteopenia; periodontitis microbiology; risk factors/diabetes; smoking; stress. This disorder has been shown to be positively associated with periodontal bone loss 51-55. The reason suggested for this finding is the ignorance of oral hygiene, which is usually observed among males. On the other hand, individuals with minimum periodontal loss of attachment have less risk for future periodontal breakdown. USA.gov. Diabetes and smoking are the biggest risk factors for gum disease development, increased severity, and the speed at which it occurs. three primary mechanisms by which local factors can increase the risk of developing periodontal disease or increase the severity of existing periodontal disease. There are five key concepts that an oral health provider should know about periodontitis risk factors. Local Risk Factors for Periodontal Diseases. 2018 Dec 30;49(4):280-287. doi: 10.25100/cm.v49i3.3919. Furthermore, the position of the margin of restoration is also related to the gingival health.  |  A detailed description of the effect of smoking on periodontitis has been given in “Smoking as a risk factor for periodontitis”. 2020 Sep 2;20(1):243. doi: 10.1186/s12903-020-01231-2. The presence of hyperactive neutrophils and monocytes in individuals showing severe periodontal breakdown has been demonstrated in many studies, Various studies have demonstrated that with increasing age the severity of periodontal diseases increases, In general, males have been shown to have more overall periodontal destruction as compared to females. Many studies and reviews have been published which support a relationship between periodontitis and diabetes 19-23. Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology. 2001 May;72(5):666-71. doi: 10.1902/jop.2001.72.5.666. Taking medications that cause dry mouth 10. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. A reduction or elimination of risk factor(s) should be included in the treatment protocol designed for a particular patient. Further, it has been found that certain individuals mount an abnormal host response to the microbial challenge. Underlying immuno-deficiencies—e.g., AIDS 8. Gene poly-morphisms have been shown to have a positive correlation with increased severity of periodontal disease. Bacterial species, including, The periodontal breakdown has been found to be more among smokers as compared to non-smokers, The association between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis has been found to be bi-directional. In a review, it was concluded that most of the studies done to find out any association between osteoporosis and periodontitis concluded that systemic …………… Contents available in the book…………. Orthodontic appliances. Postmenopausal osteoporosis in females is an important risk factor associated with increased severity of periodontal diseases. Inadequate nutrition, including vitamin C deficiency 9. IL-1 and TNF-α gene polymorphism have been studied extensively and a positive correlation has been demonstrated between periodontitis and these polymorphisms, The present research on the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease suggests that most of the tissue destruction caused by host-microbial interaction is primarily by host-derived chemical mediators. Epidemiology and risk factors of periodontal diseases. Systemic risk factors include poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and tobacco smoking. However, the relationship between socioeconomic status and periodontitis is less direct as compared to gingivitis 42, 48-50. The periodontal maintenance program should be planned, taking into consideration all the risk factors and determinants for a particular patient. The dietary habits of young and adolescents are different from that of older individuals. The presence of hyperactive neutrophils and monocytes in individuals showing severe periodontal breakdown has been demonstrated in many studies 32-35. It has been demonstrated that the susceptibility of different individuals to periodontitis for the same amount of local factors is variable. The risk factors for periodontal diseases can be classified broadly into two categories: modifiable risk factors and non-modifiable risk factors. In the following sections, we shall study in brief about these risk factors with their details in the upcoming chapters. Poor oral health habits 3. Older age 5. Calcium intake was also found to be reduced in this age group. Although, smokers have reduced clinical signs of periodontal inflammation as compared to non-smokers but they have an accelerated periodontal breakdown. Various longitudinal studies done on non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy have demonstrated that patients who regularly visit the dental office for periodontal maintenance have a better periodontal status as compared to those who infrequently visit the dental office (more details in “Periodontal maintenance”). Modifiable risk factors are usually environmental or behavioral in nature, whereas non-modifiable risk factors are usually intrinsic to the individual and therefore can not be easily changed. Substance abuse 7. Research demonstrates that stress can make it more difficult for the body to fight off infection, including periodontal diseases. Step 1. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are responsible for the remodeling of connective tissue. Anatomical features. It may alter the pH of the oral cavity, thus affecting plaque composition, The presence of faulty restorations and overhanging margins of crowns facilitate the accumulation of food particles and debris at the tooth-soft tissue interface. Supra- and subgingival calculus deposits act as local plaque retention factors. The treatment planning of the patient should be done taking into consideration the overall risk. Contents available in the book…………. In a study, it was shown that salivary cortisol level was a significant predictor of the number of missing teeth and also of the number of teeth with clinical attachment loss of ≥5 mm 26. Our patients need to be educated on what periodontitis is and the associated risk factors for the disease. As already stated, the non-modifiable risk factors are also referred to as risk determinants. Rather, the disease has already occurred and the modifying factor alters the progression of the disease by modifying the body’s response to the disease itself or to the treatment. Family studies, twin studies, population studies and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been done to find out the genetic basis of periodontal diseases. It has been observed that stressed, anxious, or depressed persons tend to neglect their oral hygiene. These include osteoporosis, HIV/AIDS, obesity, alcohol consumption, infrequent dental visits, drug intake associated periodontal disorders and iatrogenic factors. Xerostomia. A previous history of periodontitis is a good predictor of future risk of periodontal disease. The presence of faulty restorations and overhanging margins of crowns facilitate the accumulation of food particles and debris at the tooth-soft tissue interface. Recent studies also point to several potentially important periodontal risk indicators. In a 12 month study, it was demonstrated that patients who had continuously refrained from smoking for the entire study period had a significant reduction in probing depths as compared to smokers 17. Contents available in the book…………. 2020 Aug 27;12(9):2614. doi: 10.3390/nu12092614. However, it must be noted that the periodontal destruction observed in elderly individuals is a cumulative destruction over several years rather than a result of increased rates of destruction. Certain drugs which are in a chewable form, commonly have sugar as one of their constituents. 1. increase in developing gingivitis and periodontitis 2. increase the risk of developing more sever disease when gingivitis/periodontitis is already present Gene poly-morphisms have been shown to have a positive correlation with increased severity of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease, smoking, cardiovascular complications and mortality in type 1 diabetes. Local risk factors could influence directly the periodontium, the most often involved local risk factors being dental calculus, malocclusions, improper or aged and degraded dental or prosthetic treatments, orthodontic appliances, affecting also the masticatory, esthetical and phonetical function consequently decreasing the quality of life. © 1996 American Academy of Periodontology. Initiation and progression of periodontal infections are clearly modified by local and systemic conditions called risk factors. However, it has been demonstrated that absence of bleeding on probing is a good indicator of periodontal health 71, 72. Diseases such as rheumatoid … The book is usually delivered within one week anywhere in India and within three weeks anywhere throughout the world. IL-1 and TNF-α gene polymorphism have been studied extensively and a positive correlation has been demonstrated between periodontitis and these polymorphisms 28-31. The reason suggested for this difference is a better education level and more access to oral health care services by individuals with good socioeconomic status. Stress has been shown to result in elevated levels of cortisols which further have been positively associated with the extent and severity of periodontitis 25. In a study, it was observed that adolescents (11-18 years old) have a reduced intake of raw fruits and non-potato vegetables, which are sources of vitamin C. Furthermore, an increased intake of soft drinks and non-citrus juices were observed in this age group. Certain medications that cause dry mouth or gum changes 11. The individuals with low socioeconomic status have been shown to have more periodontal destruction as compared to those having average or high socioeconomic status. Keywords: Certain drugs which are in a chewable form, commonly have sugar as one of their constituents. Contreras A, Umeda M, Chen C, Bakker I, Morrison JL, Slots J. J Periodontol. A detailed description of the genetic basis of periodontal diseases has been given in “Role of genetics in pathogenesis of periodontal diseases”. NLM Factors that can increase your risk of periodontitis include: 1. Modifiable risk factors are usually environmental or behavioral in nature, whereas non-modifiable risk factors are usually intrinsic to the individual and therefore can not be easily changed. 1996 Oct;67:1041-9. There are also background determinants associated with periodontal disease including gender (with males having more disease), age (with more disease seen in the elderly), and hereditary factors. However, it must be remembered that bleeding on probing does not indicate the severity of periodontal breakdown. 1994 May;65:479-88. Inadequate nutrition 4. Stress is linked to many serious conditions such as hypertension, cancer, and numerous other health problems. This is because bleeding on probing indicates the presence of inflammation but not the severity of periodontal attachment loss. Periodontal diseases are infections, and many forms of the disease are associated with specific pathogenic bacteria which colonize the subgingival area. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. Fillings that have become defective 9. Contents available in the book…………. The HIV infection is associated with a compromised immune response which predisposes the individual to various infections. Hormonal changes, such as those related to pregnancy or menopause 6. 1 Age is weakly related to the prevalence of periodontal diseases. Furcation anatomy. Periodontal risk assessment is the overall evaluation of the patient to assess the risk for the development of periodontitis. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Introduction to risk factors for periodontal diseases. Poor oral health habits 6. Local factors Dental plaque Tobacco … However, it should be noted that the development of periodontal lesions vary among HIV-positive patients depending on the status of their immune system and maintenance of oral hygiene. Journal of periodontology. Various studies done around the globe have highlighted this finding, The individuals with low socioeconomic status have been shown to have more periodontal destruction as compared to those having average or high socioeconomic status. Hormonal changes (sometimes caused by pregnancy or menopause) 2. In a study, Adhering strictly to the periodontal maintenance protocol has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the overall dentition and periodontium of the patients. Subgingival margins of the restorations have been shown to have a positive correlation with the presence of gingival inflammation 68-70. Menopause 6 Biol Craniofac Res loss, …………… Contents available in the book………… may the! Similar amount of pathogenic microflora to Non-Surgical treatment of periodontitis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial which the... This age group these can not be modified, recognizing them can oral! More, for a particular patient are five key concepts that an oral health provider should about... Important role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection under the patient be... Supra- and subgingival calculus deposits act as local plaque retention factors s relationship to disease progression these! Is also associated with a compromised immune response which predisposes the individual to various infections usually delivered within one anywhere! Aging can not be modified or eliminated estrogen deficiency the role of diseases! 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